The Egyptian Revolution of 2011, sometimes called the 25 January Revolution,the Revolution of the Youth or the White Revolution, is a social movement that began in Egypt on 25 January 2011, characterised by a series of street demonstrations, marches, rallies, acts of civil disobedience, riots, labour strikes, and violent clashes, the date was selected to coincide with the National Police Day. The protests were largest in Cairo and Alexandria, with significant activities in other cities of Egypt.At times over a million people were protesting to demand the overthrow of the Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, an end to corruption and police repression, and democratic reforms of the political system.The demonstrations and other actions in Egypt in this period were part of a campaign of civil resistance, a technique of struggle relying primarily on non-violent methods. On 11 February, Mubarak resigned from office as a result of determined popular protest.While localized protests had been common in previous years, the 2011 protests have been the largest demonstrations seen in Egypt since the 1977 Bread Riots and unprecedented in scope,drawing participants from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds and religions.
The demonstrations, part of the 2010–2011 Arab world protests, started in the weeks after similar events in Tunisia, with many protesters carrying Tunisian flags as a symbol of their influence.Grievances of Egyptian protesters have focused on legal and political issues including police brutality,state of emergency laws,lack of free elections and freedom of speech,and uncontrollable corruption,as well as economic issues including high unemployment,food price inflation,and low minimum wages.The primary demands from protest organizers are the end of the Hosni Mubarak regime, the end of Emergency Law (martial law), freedom, justice, a responsive non-military government, and management of Egypt's resources.Labour unions were said to play an integral part in the protests.
As of 29 January, at least 105 deaths had been reported, and those injured number 750 policemen and 1,500 protesters.The capital city of Cairo was described as "a war zone,"and the port city of Suez has been the scene of frequent violent clashes. The government imposed a curfew that protesters defied and that the police and military did not enforce. The presence of Egypt's Central Security Forces police, loyal to Mubarak, was gradually replaced by largely restrained military troops. In the absence of police, there was looting by gangs that opposition sources said were instigated by plainclothes police officers. In response, civilians self-organised watch groups to protect neighbourhoods.
International response to the protests was initially mixed, though most have called for some sort of peaceful protests on both sides and moves toward reform. Mostly Western governments also expressed concern for the situation. Many governments issued travel advisories and began making attempts at evacuating their citizens from the country.
Mubarak dissolved his government and appointed military figure and former head of the Egyptian General Intelligence Directorate Omar Suleiman as Vice-President in an attempt to quell dissent. Mubarak asked aviation minister and former chief of Egypt's Air Force, Ahmed Shafik, to form a new government. Mohamed ElBaradei became a major figure of the opposition, with all major opposition groups supporting his role as a negotiator for some form of transitional unity government. In response to mounting pressure Mubarak announced he would not seek re-election in September.
On 11 February, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak would be stepping down as president and turning power over to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.The junta, headed by effective head of state Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, announced on 13 February that the constitution would be suspended, both houses of parliament dissolved, and that the military would rule for six months until elections could be held. The prior cabinet, including Prime Minister Ahmed Shafik, would continue to serve as a caretaker government until a new one is formed.
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